History 1944-2004

The story of a rugby team that brought together and united the spirits of an entire community; is the legendary story of the Ou Tuin area in the aftermath of the Second World War.

- By Junaid Moerat (Prepared in 2004)

 

This research project takes an in depth look at the formation of Vineyards Rugby Football Club, a community, religious and family based rugby club in Paarl. The research focuses on how the Muslim community as well as the broader coloured community in Paarl affected the formation and the progression of the club over the years and how, after formation, the club affected the different communities. The context in which the club was formed is very complex and complicated. Therefore it will not be possible to only look at one or two aspects surrounding the formation of the club. This project looks at various aspects involved; including the community, religion, area of living, the individuals, the Moerat family etc. It is also important to discuss the ever changing process of the local and national rugby boards and unions in the country and how Vineyards R.F.C. adapts to this process. The first period that will be covered is the year of the clubs formation (1944) to 1956. The reason for this is that it is not possible to understand the later years without having knowledge of the earlier years. This is so because of the exceptional and unique characteristics of the club. The second period that will be looked at is known as the second era of Vineyards R.F.C. This Era is of vital importance because it is during this time that the club faced its most difficult challenges because of the Group Areas Act and Apartheid. This Era also produced the best rugby played by the club and its individuals.

In order to achieve this, it is first necessary, before going into detail, to provide the reader with a brief introduction to the formation of the club. Secondly, the area in which everything took place will be discussed as the majority of the happenings were confided to a certain area. This will include a section on the history of the inhabitants particularly the Malays of the area, how they came to settle there and their religious and cultural backgrounds. The reader will also be provided with a brief history of Paarl. Thirdly, the importance and significance of a Muslim club will be discussed and the impact it had on the coloured community and more importantly, the Muslim (Malay) community. After the reader has an idea of the community and area being discussed, the project will start focusing on rugby in South Africa and in Paarl. It is essential to note how rugby, during the first era, plays a vital role in unifying the Malay community in Paarl and how, in the Second Era it does not seem to be as unifying as before. In fact, the Second Era is plagued by differences in opinion due to apartheid and the government’s multi-national sports policies. This project also takes a look at the role of Vineyards R.F.C. in the development of rugby in Paarl and South Africa and what impact they had as a club. The Second Era mainly focuses on the Moerat brothers and more importantly Ikraam Moerat. It looks at how his rugby situation, actions and views at the time, influenced the club, the community and the Moerat family as a whole. The project ends off with a brief conclusion bringing together the most crucial points and questions answered in the paper.

It all started early in 1944 when two rugby players, Moutie Moerat, and his brother in law, Esa Abrahams met at the residence of the former to discuss the possible formation of a new rugby club. They set out to test the feelings and attitudes of their relatives and friends, residing in the area, about tackling this venture. They received a positive reaction and this resulted in the inaugural meeting being held at the residence of Mr. Jaynie Moerat in Malherbe Streetin the Ou Tuin. It was decided to name the club Vineyards Rugby Football Club because of the context of its surroundings[1].

‘Ou Tuin’, when translated, literally means an old garden. The Ou Tuin area was once the garden of an old Parsonage that, by 1834, became inhabited by a culturally diverse community and developed itself into an area of living. The garden of the parsonage stretched from the foot of PaarlMountainto the BergRiver. Today that area below the parsonage is known as the ‘Ou Tuin’[3]. The inhabitants were mostly descendents of European settlers, Eastern slaves and Malay political exiles. The community that was based in the Ou Tuin was one that consisted of various social, ethnic and religious backgrounds, including Islam and Christianity. The garden of the parsonage, as well as the surrounding areas, was overflowing with vineyards and this sight is still visible on the outskirts of the developed areas in Paarl. It was therefore decided that a suitable name for the club would be Vineyards R.F.C. The section of the community touched by the formation of Vineyards R.F.C. predominantly encompasses the descendents of the Eastern slaves and Malay political exiles, of which the majority are Muslim[4]. Mr. Mogammed Nackerdien, a man with this background, was elected as the first chairman of the club. Vineyards R.F.C. was thus established in 1944 and this marked the dawn of a new era and the start of an unforgettable journey that still continues today.

On 8 February 1699a farm was granted to Pieter Janz van Marseveen by Governor Willem Adriaan van der Stel. This farm was the area that later developed into the Ou Tuin. The parsonage was situated on a section of this farm, which stretched from the Berg River to the slopes of Paarl Mountain. The Dutch Reformed Congregation of Drakenstein (Paarl) was established in 1691 and in 1714 this farm was purchased by the Landdrost and Heemraden of Stellenbosch as the site for the building of a parsonage[5]. The first parsonage was erected in 1716 and from then onwards until 1872; eleven ministers from the Strooidak Kerk (Thatched Roof Church) lived in the original and present building. By the middle of the 18th century the parsonage was in a much neglected condition. In 1786 it was demolished and reconstructed, partly with material from the original building. The restoration of the parsonage was completed in 1787.

This building is an example of a Cape Dutch styled house which dates back to the 18th century. In 1872 the property was sold to the Thom family and it remained in their possession until the Paarl Town Council purchased it. In the late 1920s this building was used as a boy’s hostel by Paarl Gymnasium High   School. In 1939 the building was renovated and opened as the Huguenot Museum. In 1969 its name was changed to the Old Parsonage Museum[6].

“Paarl is the third oldest European Settlement in South Africa. Today it is home to a very culturally diverse community, the product of its unique history. The people of Paarl are descendents of the Khoisan, African -, and Eastern Slaves, Dutch, French Huguenots, Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe, Italian Prisoners of War, and Xhosa migrant labourers. The original purpose of the Dutch settlement in the vicinity of latter day Cape Townwas to provide fresh food and water to the ships of the Dutch East India Company, on their way to the East.[7]” In 1657, Abraham Gabbema was sent from the settlement at the Cape to search for supplies of fresh meat, groups to barter from and to search for the legendary treasures of Monomotapa. He was the first European to arrive in the Berg River Valley[8]. On the day that they arrived in the Berg River Valley, the clusters of granite, that is so prominent in the valley, was gleaming in the sun after some showers. This inspired Gabbema to promptly name this mountain “diamante ende Peerlberg” from which the name Paarl Valley was later derived. In October 1687, 30 years after the Gabbema expedition, Governor Simon van der Stel granted the first farms to free burghers. Although Europeans settled in the valley in1687, Paarl did not begin to take shape as a town until 1720 when the first church building was erected[9].

In the following year 1688, the French Huguenots arrived in the Capeand some of them were given property in the Drakenstein area and at the foot of PaarlMountain. Twenty-one of these farms were in Drakenstein (Paarl), and five were at the foot of PaarlMountain[10]. One of their most important influences was of course their knowledge of the wine industry. Today the headquarters of the South African wine industry, the KWV, is to be found in Paarl. It is situated on one of the earliest farms (La Concorde) to be granted by Governor van der Stel[11].

63 000 slaves were imported to South Africa between 1658 and 1808,  from many different parts of the world such as Nigeria, Angola, India, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Indonesia, Batavia (Djakarta) and the Spice Islands. Slaves had to sow, harvest and thresh the wheat while on wine farms they had to harvest and press the grapes. “Slaves also had to load wagons, weed their owner’s fields, and look after the farmer’s livestock. The women did housework and in some cases acted as wet nurses for their owner’s children.” In 1813 Het Gesticht (a small unbaked brick church) was built to provide slaves with a place of worship. Het Gesticht is the fourth oldest church building in South   Africaand located close to the StrooidakChurch. From 1820 onwards it became known as the ZionChurch. “After the slaves were emancipated in 1834, the freed slaves in Paarl received some property in the vicinity of Berg and the later School Streets.[12]” These slaves, as well as the European settlers and Malay political exiles, started settling and forming distinct communities, in what is now called the Ou Tuin. The name ‘Malay’ is a label given by the people of Cape Town to the city’s Muslims[13].

After the Christians, the Malays (Muslims) are unquestionably the oldest religious group in the DrakensteinValley(Paarl). The first Malays that arrived in the Capein 1667 were followed by other groups in 1694, 1710, 1725, 1737 and 1749. The most of them were political exiles form Java. Sheik Yusuf, who died in 1699, was the leader of these Malays. When he arrived in the Capein 1694 with 48 followers, Simon van der Stel received them in a friendly manner and allowed them to settle near the Zandvliet farm in the Stellenbosch district. As a result of the expansion of the colony the Malays (Muslims) started settling in the DrakensteinValleyand on the foot of PaarlMountainjust above the Ou Tuin area, and till today they maintained their identity as a distinct group[14]. The people of the Malay Archipelago are divided into several groups, one of which is the Malay men who were civilized Malays with a culture, literature and religion of their own. This group includes Balinese and Javanese and these are the ancestors of the Cape Malays residing in Paarl and the Ou Tuin. “Although of mixed descent, the Malay strain can still be traced and many families claim a pure Malay lineage.[15]

The Malays were skilled workmen and many of them were in the wagon-making and building industry, while others were tailors. European settlers got married to Malay women and many of them adopted the religion of the women. The Malays became wealthy craftsmen and were distinguished members of society. After the slaves were emancipated in 1834, of which many were also from Malay lineage, they received land in what now constitutes the Ou Tuin. The wealthier Malay/European families started building small houses in the Ou Tuin for these now freed slaves. The majority of these slaves ended up working for the wealthier Malays. If one were to look at the surnames of the Malays who had big businesses in Paarl, it does not reflect the Malay heritage. Surnames like Du Toit, Domingo and Moerat. These three families were of the wealthiest in the Ou Tuin and predominantly wagon-makers. They were Muslim, but the mother was from Malay heritage and the father usually from European heritage, particularly French[16]. The Moerat family stems from a Malay woman and the captain of a French settler ship. The religion of the Malays is Islam and Friday is generally their Sabbath. In the early days services were held in Orange Street just above the Ou Tuin area on the slopes of Paarl Mountain. Later on a mosque was built in Breda Street in the Ou Tuin, but as the community increased, another one was built in Waterkant Street at a later period. Waterkant Street was situated closer to the Berg River at the bottom of the Ou tuin. However, the two congregations worked in accord in all religious matters and were known as a single Malay community[17].

The Muslim community in Paarl was a small minority at the time of the formation of Vineyards R.F.C. The majority of the Muslims resided in the Ou Tuin and lived harmoniously among their fellow residents, despite the cultural and religious differences. The Muslim community is strict on the upholding of their religious codes and has made the Malays a most respected and law abiding section among the different communities which make up Paarl. Consequently, by 1952, its local school was small with an enrolment 90 pupils with three qualified Malay teachers[18]. Before 1944, most of the Muslim rugby players were playing for other, primarily Christian, clubs in the area. Early in 1890, a few young coloured Christians gathered together in Berg Street, Paarl, and after some discussion decided to form a rugby club. This club was called The Young Standards Rugby Football Club and they played matches against teams from Malmesbury, Caledon and Worcester. Gradually other clubs were started[19]. The Muslim rugby players, consisting mostly of youth (aged 16-28), were scattered among these clubs. This was a cause of concern among the Muslim community. There are many reasons for this cause of concern. The Islamic faith prohibits its followers from attending or organizing dances, parties, consume alcohol, sell raffle tickets etc, things that happened frequently at the functions of these ‘Christian’ clubs. The Muslim members of these clubs, therefore often felt as if they did not belong and that they were not a part of the true essence of these clubs. Muslims are also discouraged to play sport during the month of Ramadaan[20].

The establishment of a Muslim club in 1944 brought together all Muslim rugby players and supporters and more importantly, because of this unity, it formed an essential part of paving the way and igniting the traditions of Islam for the youth of the time[21].  Vineyards R.F.C. was open only to those who followed the Muslim faith in order to maintain unity amongst Muslims in Paarl. The formation of a Muslim club might have caused unity among the Muslim community, but it had its negative effects in the broader coloured community. The tension among Christians and Muslims grew and the matches were later overshadowed by religious aspects. Spectators from both sides would make matters worse when they would attach degrading names to the opposition regarding the different religions[22]. However, for the Muslims, “Vineyards R.F.C. is established on a very sentimental way and for many of us the club will remain sentimental.[23]” As a result of this cultural and religious particularism, not one, but several ‘provincial rugby boards eventually emerged from the black communities of Cape Town and the surrounding areas like Paarl. This complicated relations and led to long-running tensions that spilled over at both local and national level. This impacted majorly on the history of black/non-racial rugby[24].

“Cape Townwas the birthplace of South African sport, as we know it today.[25]” The British occupation of the Cape in 1795 and 1805 can be seen as the reason for this. The settlers and soldiers introduced games like rugby to the local people, both black and white and they then rapidly came into contact with this sport, and started giving it a unique South African character. From the beginning it became evident that the Malays were keen sportsmen, the Malays in Cape   Town as well as those in Paarl[26]. One of the earliest artist’s sketches of a rugby match in Cape Town features spectators wearing the distinctive koufeia identified with the Cape Muslim community i.e. the Malays. By the 1870s there were few clubs in existence in larger centers like Cape Town, where a substantial amount of settlers could be found. However, there were no official leagues or competitions in place yet and no regional or national sports associations had been formed. It was between 1875 and 1885 that sport had become institutionalized[27]. In those ten years the first rugby clubs were formed and regular competitions were started. The Paarl Rugby Football Club was established in 1883 and was an all-white organization[28]. From the 1880s onwards, sport was placed on an organized footing as a result of the formation of national organizations[29].

The Western Province Coloured Rugby Union (WPCRU) was formed in Cape Townin 1886; only three years after white rugby players had formed their own exclusive Western Province Rugby Football Union. The founding clubs of the WPCRU were Roslyns form District Six; Violets form Claremont, Good Hopes and ArabianCollegefrom Bo-Kaap, and later on Hamediahs. In 1898 competition was put on formal footing with the Fernwood Cup Competition for first division teams in the union[30]. As the name Arabian College and Hamediahs indicate, the teams in the Fernwood Cup were drawn from the cohesive and well-established Muslim community in Cape   Town. The Cape Muslims became passionate rugby followers at an early stage. Through their religious beliefs and customs, they maintained their identity and adopted the new game on their own terms, giving them a distinctive character and meaning[31]. It is clear that when the British colonialists started to form clubs, competitions, and regional and national organizations, the Malays were of the first non-whites to follow suit, particularly inCape Town andKimberley.

Following the formation of the predominantly Muslim board in 1886, a second regional organization, the City and Suburban Union, was formed in 1898. ‘Cities’ was based in Mowbray and this union represented a different sector of the black community. City and Suburban remained very specific about membership: as late as the 1960s a clause in its constitution forbade membership to Muslims, unlike the WPCRU, despite being predominantly Muslim, they never forbade membership to other religions. This kind of sectionalism remained a perennial problem in sport in theCape, on and off the field.

Meanwhile, by the turn of the century rugby had spread beyond the city of Cape Townto Stellenbosch, Paarl and other outlying areas. In 1903 the Coronation Rugby Football Union was established to cater for rugby clubs in Stellenbosch, Wellingtonand Paarl[32]. Later on the clubs increased and it was felt that another union should be started. This was called the Paarl, Wellington and Malmesbury Rugby Football Union. In 1937 the Coronation Union obtained the new grounds at Huguenot (‘Kraal’) and in order to have 100percent local support, all clubs were called in and a common ground board discussed.  In 1937 the County Coloured Rugby Union was formed in Paarl and they started organizing leagues involving all the clubs in Paarl[33] e.g. Paarl Violets R.F.C., Riverstones R.F.C., Albions R.F.C., these clubs were all essentially Christian. However, these clubs as well as the County Coloured Rugby Union never prohibited the participation of rugby players’ form other religions. In 1938 the County Coloured Rugby Union merged with the WPCRU to form the Western Province Coloured Rugby Football Board. This board was disbanded during the Second World War (1939-45) and in 1946 the County Coloured Rugby Football Union affiliated itself with the Western Province League[34]. Statistics provided by Dobson show that by 1930 there were more than 200 black rugby clubs in Cape Town and the surrounding areas[35]. Small wonder then, that theWestern   Cape became the stronghold of black/non-racial rugby inSouth Africa. It is clear and obvious that the people here were keen sportsman and rugby followers form the beginning and thus, they form part of a long tradition.

THE EARLY STAGES:

In the wake of the 1944 season, Vineyards R.F.C. entered two teams into the County Coloured Rugby Union. A 1st team and a 3rd team. With a limited amount of players from which to field its first team, players had to keep fit to avoid unnecessary injuries. The following competitions were catered for annually by the County Coloured Rugby Football Union: – 1st Teams: League; De Villiers Knock-Out; Hospital Knock-Out and Board Shield Knock-Out[36]. The determination of the first team players resulted in Vineyards winning three of the major trophies in the competition of the Coloured Rugby Union in its first year of existence (League, De Villiers K.O., and Hospital K.O.). In its first historic match in May 1944, Vineyards played against Albions of Southern Paarl and beat its opponents by 18 points[37]. The players of Vineyards soon became heroes to young rugby fans in the Muslim community of Paarl.

Vineyards R.F.C. was a community and family based team. Like the majority of the Muslim clubs in Cape Town, the majority of Vineyards’ players, administration and supporters came from one or two streets (mostly from Malherbe Street in the Ou Tuin), a family group (Moerat) or the ‘Jammahs’ (Paarl Muslim community), organized groups meeting for religious purposes which spread out into the social sphere. Formal sports clubs emerged from these communal activities[38]. The Muslim religious leaders in Paarl and other highly respected members of the Muslim community all supported Vineyards R.F.C. and they even encouraged their brothers and sons to play for the team[39]. The majority of the members of Vineyards R.F.C. came from the same ‘Jammah’, lived in close proximity, and even more exclusively, the majority of the members belong to one family. The situation inCape Town among the Muslim clubs in earlier years was similar to that of Vineyards R.F.C. A local Muslim sports historian explained why this was so:

They… decided… to organize on ethical and cultural

grounds in order to keep the Muslims of theCapetogether and

also to bring unity amongst them. As most of the leading

administrators were also the Imams of the congregation, they

felt it was better to organize separately as they were mostly

against the drinking habits of other groups, especially

over the festive season[40].

Rugbyfever ran high amongst the young and old and women and men alike. Saturdays when the heroes of the Ou Tuin ran onto the field at the ‘Kraal[41], almost all the Muslims of the town were present. The ‘Kraal’ was the well laid out grounds behind the Huguenot station[42]. Sundays when the teams were chosen, the supporters waited anxiously at the café of ‘Boeta[43] Abbas or at the barbershop of Boeta Gasant, to hear which team will be running out onto the playing field on Saturday. Also from Upper-Paarl Boeta Manie Antar departed early in his truck on a Saturday to arrive at the field in time for kick-off.

“Wie sal ooit vergeet van Boeta Gamat Richards se ‘open-air’ biskoop in Malherbestraat op Maandagaande? Wie sal ooit vergeet daardie onvergeetlike skop wat Boeta Boebie deur die pale klits en wat die skuidsregter as mis aandui, terwyl Boeta Gamat dit met sy 16mm kamera op rolprent vasgele het en dit in sy biskoop vertoon het? Vir diegene wat daardie dae onthou is dit nou pure nostalgia. Dit was egter n belewenis wat nooit weer herhaal sal kan word nie.[44]

In 1946 Vineyards went on a triumphant tour of the EasternProvince. Mr. Mohammed Patel was the manager of the touring team and clearly remembers the excitement of those days[45]. According to Mr. Mohammed Patel, when Vineyards undertook this tour to the ‘Baai’[46], those that stayed behind occupied every available telephone at night to hear the news of the happenings on tour. The next morning at school it was the topic of conversation among all the children at the Muslim school in the Ou Tuin, and the principal, Mister Khan, was also informed. Vineyards returned from theEasternProvince unbeaten in the three matches they played.

Players fromCape Town,Strand,WorcesterandWellingtoncame to join the club to be part of these legendary events. Vineyards R.F.C. was always open to Muslims from other towns and districts. Despite it being a community and family based team, the inclusion of one or two players from outside Paarl would not have an effect on the identity of Vineyards R.F.C. as a community team for the Muslims in Paarl. Vineyards R.F.C. did, however, see itself as part of a wider Muslim community and strived to maintain this distinct character. Some rugby players even accepted the Muslim faith to be a part of this legendary team. Shakier Jephtas was one such player that converted to Islam to join Vineyards R.F.C. By the late 1940s Vineyards became the backbone of the Coloured Union team, which in the mean time changed its name to the Paarl and Districts Union, and rugby in Paarl was now also a force against other towns and unions. This photo depicts the team representing the Paarl Union in 1950. Six Vineyards players played in this match.

Vineyards juniors’ was established among the youngsters of the community to play games on Sundays against the junior teams of clubs in Cape Town. Youngsters imitated the senior players and it is not a coincidence that a few years down the line these youngsters formed that backbone of the senior team. This happened in view of the fact that Vineyards R.F.C. was community based and the majority of the members came from one or two family groups. Therefore it was, since the establishment of an all Muslim club, highly unlikely that Muslim rugby players would play for another club, let alone a Christian club. The sons and grandsons of the former players have carried on the tradition in the maroon and white colours of Vineyards. This was the unforgettable days of the forties. “Die dae van die Ou Tuin”[47].

A poem written by a Vineyards member and former resident of the Ou Tuin, Mr. Kariem Moerat, captures the essence of the Ou Tuin and why one would consider the days of the Ou Tuin to be unforgettable. It must also be noted that none of the members of the club is presently residing in the original area as a result of the Group Areas Development Act (Act 60 of 1955) and the Group Areas (Act 75 of 1957). The Group Areas Act was the pillar of all apartheid laws. The government demarcated separate residential areas in which each of the race groups could live, trade and work. These areas were characterized by limited amenities[48]. In 1960 the Ou Tuin became a designated ‘white’ zone. Between 1960 and 1980 the people who lived in the Ou Tuin were forcibly removed and their houses and shops bulldozed to the ground. Families and friends were split up and moved to their respective designated areas. People were split up according to their social and financial status. The wealthier coloured people who could afford a home were placed in Charleston Hill, while those just less fortunate were moved to New Orleans. The poorer of the coloured people were moved to Amstelhof, ‘Die Rug’, and Chicago. As a result of this, “we no longer have the neighborhood that our hearts yearn for, and no longer do we have the feeling of sharing or sense of community. [49]” The loss of the Ou Tuin area, which contained two mosques and various churches, was of particular concern and caused bitter resentment[50].  Therefore, to those that witnessed the early days of Vineyards R.F.C. and the atmosphere in the Ou Tuin, it is an experience that can never be relived.

 “DIE OU TUIN”

Ons het gewoon vanaf Laundrystraat tot by die Waterbrug,

Die kleigat was “O.K”, die jubilee berug.

Hier was ons almal se vriend en almal se “Pal”,

Al he tons hoe verskil of hoe geskel.

(He says here that the people of the Ou Tuin were all friends, despite their differences and no matter how much they argued).

In Malherbestraat het die smouse koning gekraai,

En onder op die tennis baan was daar Davey Samaai.

Daar was Weiss, Du Toit, Loop en Nuwestraat,

En in Van der LIngen het die “Bellies” die hardste gepraat. 

Breda en Waterkant het onder “Main Roads” geval, soggens

As die kinders na die Moslem skool en “Holy Trinity” gaan in getal.

(The importance of these two versus is the emphasis that the poet puts on the diversity of the community ion the Ou Tuin and how they lived together as neighbors. The poet talks about how the children walked to school together. Some to the Moslem school and others to “Holy Trinity”, which was a Christian religious school).

Al die groot vanne het sy oorsprong hier,

Daar was Jacobs, Kannemeyer, Petersen, Solomon

En daar was Kackier.

Moslem vanne wat ek nie almal kan tel,

Daar was Abrahams, Gaidien, Kozain, Nackerdien, Moerat

En ook Patel.

(This verse further elaborates on the diverse community in the Ou Tuin, the Muslim and Christian residents).

Toe ons weg trek na die “rug” toe le alles in puin,

Stadig maar seker he tons geliefste Ou Tuin verdwyn!!

(The last verse must be seen as the most important in tone and feeling. The reader gets the impression of the poet’s sadness and despair when he says that ‘slowly but surely, our beloved Ou Tuin disappeared.’ This happened as a result of the forced removals.)

By: Kariem Moerat

 The fact that the forced removals took place over a period of about 15 years lessened the impact it could have had on the club. However, things were worsened because of the criteria used for the placement of the coloured people. Vineyards was a club based mainly on religion. Therefore the members of Vineyards R.F.C. consisted of both the rich and poor Muslims. Before the forced removals they all lived in the same area or street, whereas after the removals they were now scattered among areas where the rich lived and areas where the poor lived. Vineyards had to adapt to this situation and it took a lot of time and effort by players and administration to keep the club on a firm footing. Players met at the mosque every Friday afternoon to catch up on the happenings and find out when the next match is. Meetings, which was previously held in the Ou Tuin was now being held at the barbershop opposite the ‘Kraal.’ If there was an important message it was spread via word of mouth to every Vineyards player in Paarl[51]. It is clear that Vineyards R.F.C. went through a difficult period, as far as administration and keeping players together was concerned, during the forced removals. This situation however did not have an effect on the players when they took the field. Even after the forced removal, Vineyards still went on to win various trophies and their players excelled to provincial and national levels.

Just before the turn of the 19th century the game of rugby was spreading out form the cradles of black sport in Cape Town and what today constitutes the Eastern Province (predominantly Bantu rugby players) to other parts of the country[52]. The South African Coloured Rugby Football Board was formed in 1897. SACRFB organized the Rhodes Cup Tournament, which was the black equivalent of SARFB’s (white national body) Currie Cup. The Rhodes Cup Tournament was a competition between black provincial teams from most of the provinces in the country. The Western Province Coloured Rugby Football Board, to which Vineyards was affiliated to, affiliated itself to the South African Coloured Rugby Football Board. During World War II the Western Province Col. R.F. Board ceased to exist so in 1946 the County Coloured. R.F. Union affiliated to the Western Province League. This League won the Rhodes Cup in 1948[53]. The first of 27 Rhodes tournaments was held in Kimberley in August 1898. The Rhodes Cup was donated by Cecil John Rhodes[54].

The picture on the left is of the Western Province League Squad for the 1948 Rhodestournament, captained by Dickie Neal of Paarl. Vineyards players on the photo are (sitiing in the second row) Abbas Moerat (1st from right), (sitting in front) Na-aim Moerat (1st on the left), and Shakier Jephtas (5th). This photo was found in Woodstock in Cape Town at the residence of Na-aim Moerat, the only surviving member of the 1944 team to play in the first ever league match against Albions and the only surviving Vineyards member from the W.P. League squad for the 1948 Rhodes tournament. Vineyards R.F.C. had three representatives in this Western Province League squad for the 1948 Rhodes tournament. Over the years, since 1944, Vineyards had, all together, five representatives in the Western Province League squad and four of those made the national Rhodes side. These players were Abbas Moerat, Na-aim Moerat, Said Abrahams, Shakier Jephtas and Salie Du Toit[55].

This picture represents three brothers and stalwarts of the Vineyards team in the nineteen forties and early fifties, from left: Adam Moerat, Na-aim Moerat and Abbas Moerat. The photo was taken in 1948. Adam Moerat is the only one of the three brothers that did not make the W.P. League squad. He missed the trials because of illness thereby missing his W.P. cap[56]. If he hadn’t been ill he would have definitely been in that team for the 1948 Rhodes Cup.

In 1944 the original first team consisted of 10 Moerats and Esa Abrahams and Whaagied Hendricks, who also formed part of the Moerat family. The sons of these players have carried on the tradition in the maroon and white Vineyards colours. Those who gained national honours were Achmat Abrahams, Ghalieb and Hasiem Hendricks, Ebrahim, Ikraam, Marwaan, Achmat and Nazeem Moerat. The fathers of all these players were members of the 1944 team.  The late Achmat Moerat was the son on the late Jaynie Moerat (1944 team prop). Esa Abrahams, one of the founding members of the club, is the father of Achmat ‘Broertjie’ Abrahams. Ikraam and Marwaan Moerat is the sons of the late Allie Moerat, who scored the first ever try for Vineyards in its first historic match against Albions. Ghalieb and Hasiem Hendricks is the sons of the late Whaagied Hendricks (1944 team centre), while Nazeem Moerat is the son of Abubie Moerat (1944 team centre)[57]. Their sons have also gone further and are still carrying on the tradition in the maroon and white colours. Every generation of the Moerat family would follow in the footsteps of their forefathers and carry on the tradition of Vineyards rugby for years to come. The present (2004) Vineyards R.F.C. 1st XV boasts with 11 members from the Moerat family and ironically they are all the sons and grandsons of the previous two generations that have passed since the establishment of Vineyards R.F.C. It is not surprising that the current three 1st XV loose forwards (Zaino, Adam and Allie Moerat[58]) are the sons of the 1968 1st XV loose forwards (Ebrahim, Shakier and Ikraam Moerat).

The South African Coloured Rugby Board started experiencing serious internal problems in the 1950s and 1960s. The most serious was the rift that appeared between leaders of the Western Province League and the Kimberley-based leadership of the national board. The Western Province League was unhappy about the way the national body was run and in 1954 the League drew up a memorandum calling for reform of the SACRFB. The ‘Kimberleyclique’ ignored this and the officials of the League started canvassing support for a new national body[59]. In April 1958, the Western Province League withdrew from the SACRFB. In January 1959 the dissidents formed the new South African Rugby Football Federation (SARFF) at a conference in Paarl, the base of the new president, Cuthbert Loriston. Vineyards R.F.C. automatically fell under the jurisdiction of this new South African Rugby Football Federation. This was also considered by Vineyards’ officials, to be more practical seeing that the SARFF’s president was based in Paarl and that most decision would be made in Paarl which would give the clubs in Paarl a voice[60]. In later years Cuthbert Loriston was pilloried for supporting the government’s so-called multi-national sports policy and forming an alliance with Danie Craven’s whites-only establishment[61].

SECOND ERA (1956-1979)…

During the Second Era of Vineyards’ existence there were three national bodies catering for black rugby players in South Africa. The new SARFF(Proteas) started its own Gold Cup inter-provincial tournament to run alongside those of the SAARB and the SACRB. This split in national coloured rugby had a significant impact on the progression of Vineyards Rugby Football Club. The Second Era concentrates on this issue and how the club handled the circumstances it was faced with. In 1964 the first annual test match between the Federation and the African Board was played. Vineyards R.F.C. was, at the time, affiliated to the Federation because of its ties with the Western Province League[62].  The Africans also continued to play tests against the Coloured Board. Vineyards R.F.C. had representatives in the national side that played tests against the African Board. In 1966 the SA Coloured Rugby Board decided to change its name to the South African Rugby Union (SARU), dropping the racial designation it had carried since its foundation in 1886. “In 1969 it replaced the Rhodes Cup, now recognized as a symbol of colonialism, with the SA Cup competition.[63]

In 1964 an idea surfaced among members of the club to make the club accessible to players of any religion. This mood was adopted because there existed a feeling, among the players, of racism and guilt in terms of association to apartheid. This change had to be accepted by the Paarl Union and it resulted in a countless number of meetings being held concerning the issue. Vineyards R.F.C.’s argument was that while the coloured people were opposed to the policies of apartheid, they themselves were guilty of a different form of discrimination, namely religious. This was why the idea surface to make the club accessible to players of any religion and this is why it surfaced at this specific point in time when sport in South Africawas facing the consequences of apartheid. The Christian majority of representatives in the Paarl Union felt that this reason was only a cover up for what they considered to be the real reason. The majority of the Christian clubs believed that Vineyards R.F.C. was facing a difficult challenge as far as players are concerned. Their argument was that Vineyards realized that they would not be able to exist if they continued being a Muslim club. It was thought that there were not enough Muslims rugby players to guarantee the existence of Vineyards R.F.C. The officials of Vineyards knew that this was not the case as Vineyards was still a strong club and its existence was not in jeopardy. After lengthy discussions and numerous meetings by Vineyards officials and the Unionit was decided that Vineyards’ argument had reliable grounds. In 1964, then, Vineyards R.F.C. became an open club. However, it still remained, until today, a predominantly Muslim club as far as players and supporters are concerned[64].

A highlight of the club in the Second Era was in 1968 when they played Rangers (predominantly Christian club) from Paarl in the final of the Paarl Union’s League competition[65]. Vineyards won that game 3-0 and Sullaiman Jeppie scored the winning try. This was unquestionably the ticket to the Silver Trophy in the following year.

The Silver Trophy was the South African club Championship trophy i.e. the winners of this trophy was considered to be the best rugby club in the country affiliated to the SA Federation. At the start of the next season in 1969, Vineyards lost its first Silver Trophy match against Excelsior from Stellenbosch. This loss sparked a renewed sense of determination in the pursuit of winning the Silver Trophy in 1969 as Vineyards was the champions of the Paarl League and they wanted to prove to the rest of the country that they were worthy of that title. Vineyards’ most competitive opponent that year came in the form of the Christian club Meltons, a team from ElsiesRiverin Cape Town[66]. This match was played in Paarl, and the game was stopped during the first minute due to foul play and violence on the field. Violence erupted because of the tension building up to the game and the fact that these two teams were from different religious backgrounds. As discussed earlier, religious differences were a perennial problem in rugby in Cape   Town, and Vineyards was now faced with this type of rivalry. After negotiations and discussions among Federation officials, it was decided that this important match continue[67]. In the second half of the match a brilliant try was scored by eighthman Ikraam Moerat, and the try was converted. Vineyards went on to win that game 5-0, thereby winning the Silver Trophy for the first time. The Silver Trophy involved all the clubs affiliated to the Federation. Vineyards went on to win this prestigious trophy and claim their status as South Africa’s coloured club champions for four consecutive years (1969-1972)[68]. “Hoogtepunte sal seker altyd wees die Silwer Trofee span wat tydens 1969 – 1972 skoonskip in Federasie Rugby gemaak het.[69]

The 1970s marked the start of local and international opposition to apartheid by means of sport. There was ongoing international pressure on the apartheid government to shy away from apartheid and its policies. When the government refused to give in to international pressure, other means of resisting apartheid was sought. One of this means came in the form of sport and it inevitably played a crucial part in the transformation of South Africa. During 1970-1989, as international opposition to apartheid mounted, at least nine official rugby tours involving South Africawere cancelled. The apartheid government came to realize that this anti-apartheid opposition in sport was not going to fade away effortlessly and that encouraged the National Party government to transform its sports policy[70]. The South African Rugby Board stared rugby boycotts of rugby tours in the face. Countries were skeptical about touring South Africa or allowing the Springbok team to tour their respective countries because of the international pressure to South Africa’s apartheid policy. Therefore, a ‘complicated and convoluted re-formulation of National Party policy took place. Outwardly the impression of racially integrated sport had to be created. Yet, this had to be done without actually sacrificing apartheid principles.[71]’ The apartheid government announced to the world that none of its policies stipulated that sport in South   Africa should be racially divided. The white national rugby body also proclaimed that its policies support a racially mixed sports society[72]. “‘Multi-national’ sport was confined to a few special events at top level only; it entailed competition between the four main racial groups representing separate ‘nations’, or between international teams from abroad and each of these groups individually.[73]” Test matches were then organized between the South African Bantu side and the Proteas (Federation side). Achmat ‘Broertjie’ Abrahams was the first of Vineyards’ players to make the Protea side, many others followed in his footsteps.

This picture shows the Federation scrumhalf trying to get rid of the ball behind the scrum in a test between the Federation and the SA Bantu side. Ikraam Moerat (Vineyards R.F.C.) looks on from behind the scrum.

The white rugby body, SA Rugby Board, decided to approach the Federation and convince them to send a coloured rugby team overseas to try and loosen the shackles of the boycott threats. There were many coloured rugby administrators and players that were opposed to this idea. The South African Rugby Football Federation decided to work together with the white national body and go along with the plan to send a coloured team overseas[74]. The team was known as the Proteas and undertook a tour to England in 1971. Cuthbert Loriston was elected as manager of the touring side. The Proteas were a coloured rugby team composed of players from the Western Cape, and the first coloured team to play abroad[75]. The South African Rugby Union (SARU) was openly opposed to this idea. Their argument was that the white body was using coloured rugby players to oppose the boycotts. SARU adopted an unambiguous and uncompromising anti-apartheid stand[76]. The policy of SARU was based on “no normal sport in an abnormal society.”

This article appeared in ‘Die Burger’, Afrikaans newspaper, before the Protea team was chosen. The title reads “Paarl brothers stand a good chance.”

The highlight of the 1970/71 season for Vineyards R.F.C. was that the Moerat brothers, namely Ikraam and Marwaan, were chosen for the Protea touring side to England. The two Paarlites “both play for Vineyards, champion rugby team at Paarl who year after year leave their mark.[77]” The tour not only caused a split among rugby lovers in South Africa, but also among the ranks of Vineyards players, officials and supporters. The father of the two brothers chosen for the Protea touring side, Mr. Allie Moerat, said that he does not understand the meaning behind opposing the tour, only good can come out of it[78].  The tour manager, Cuthbert Loriston, claimed that the tour was worthwhile as it ‘gave coloured players opportunities of broadening their outlook and gaining experience in a way that was not possible in South Africa in the early 1970s.[79]’ On their return, Ikraam and Marwaan were ostracized by people in their communities for going on the tour.

After the Protea side returned form England, the English national side undertook a tour to South   Africaand was scheduled to play the Proteas again. Ikraam and Marwaan Moerat were once again included into the Protea side. However, a couple of days before the match was scheduled, Ikraam Moerat withdrew himself and his younger brother Marwaan from the team, without Marwaan’s consent[80]. Marwaan Moerat was not happy about this as he wanted to partake in the match and politics was not of much concern to him. When Ikraam withdrew he was adopting a completely different stance than that of earlier in the year.

The reason he gave for his withdrawal was in sync with the policies of SARU, that there can be no normal sport in an abnormal society. “Ons het gevoel dat ons gebruik word om wit rugby in internasionale sport the hou.[81]” Another reason why he withdrew was as a result of a personal experience with another club. Ikraam Moerat left Vineyards R.F.C. to join Paarl Rugby Football Club, a whites-only club. P.R.F.C. was one of the top white clubs in South Africa and he thought that playing for this club would have a positive outcome on his career and he would be at an advantage. He approached this club because he believed the government and the white national rugby body when they claimed to the world that rugby in South   Africa was not racially segregated. However, the constitution of Paarl R.F.C. states that it is a whites-only club and they turned him away. Technically speaking it was true that there was no official national policy that forbade coloured players from playing for ‘white’ clubs, but in realty this was not the case. The apartheid government’s argument was that every club had its own constitution and that they had no authority over the clubs rules[82]. Ikraam Moerat also claimed that the tour to England did broaden his outlook and it was because of his newly broadened perspective on South African society that he realized that what he was experiencing in England was what he was prohibited from doing in his own country. This led to him leaving Vineyards R.F.C. and with that, the Federation, to join a club inCape Town that was affiliated to SARU. This was a huge blow to Vineyards’ rugby in general as Ikraam was one of their star players. The following year Vineyards R.F.C., as a club, followed his footsteps and joined Western Province Union, who supported the boycotts. Everyone in the community was in favour of this step. Following this, vineyards R.F.C. made their mark in SARU as well. Vineyards R.F.C. became a force in SARU rugby by having players representing the national SARU side. Players like Ikraam, Marwaan, Nazeem and Ebrahim Moerat as well as Ghalieb and Hasiem Hendricks, represented the SARU side in test matches against the national Bantu (Black) side.

Vineyards R.F.C. grew to become one of the most successful clubs in the disadvantaged communities. They were the SA club champions for four years running and they were Boland club champions just before unification in 1994. Most importantly, Vineyards delivered the most Springboks (12) among the black clubs inSouth Africa. The amount of Springboks delivered by a club is usually, in rugby circles, considered to be a fair reflection of the successes of the club. The contribution made by Vineyards players was finally recognized when they received their Springbok blazers and ties from the present South African Rugby Football Union (SARFU) in recognition of their achievements.

Among them were eight members from one family, seven of them cousins and their fathers were all part of the 1944 team. “They are all part of the well-known Moerat family from Paarl and all played for Vineyards R.F.C.[83]” If one was to look at the rugby tradition of the Moerat family and their association with Vineyards R.F.C., it is clear that the Moerat surname is synonymous with Vineyards Rugby Football Club and vice versa. The same could be said about the Abrahams and Hendricks families which is all part of the greater Moerat decendants.

One remembers the days with sweet recollection, when heroes like; Ebrahim Moerat, Ikraam Moerat, ‘Broertjie’ Abrahams and Ghalieb Hendricks, captured the imagination of every passionate rugby supporter, locally and nationally. Since Vineyards R.F.C. was established they made an invaluable contribution to coloured rugby in Paarl and coloured rugby in South Africa[84]. The path followed over the years, the accomplishments of the club since establishments, and the achievements of individual players, serves as a lesson and an inspiration to each and every rugby fan out there. “We witnessed with pride and consistent positive rugby over the past half century, the contribution made by the club to the spread and growth of rugby in Paarl.[85]” Vineyards was without a doubt a force in rugby attraction for the public. If we could change the country’s policies or turn back time, players would certainly have been knocking on the doors of the Province and the SA Rugby Board[86].

The aim of vineyards R.F.C. in 1944 was to bring together and maintain a sense of unity among the Muslim community in Paarl. Since Establishment they were successful in achieving this because if the community was unhappy about certain things, Vineyards would adopt as in the case of the move to SARU. The fact that most of the Muslims in Paarl lived in the Ou Tuin made this task easier. What makes Vineyards R.F.C. even more unique is the fact that the majority of the members come from one family and one community. The existence of Vineyards R.F.C. was challenged when the Group Area laws were imposed. Because of the forced removals, players were scattered and there was a risk of losing the unity amongst the Muslims and losing players to other clubs. However, Vineyards R.F.C. rose to the challenge and they proved this when they won the club championships for four consecutive years. Despite the governments policies, Vineyards’ members and the Muslim community in Paarl remained as closely knit as ever. Vineyards R.F.C. celebrates its 60th anniversary this year (2004) and its aim is still the same as in 1944. Despite all the challenging obstacles that the youth are faced with today, Vineyards R.F.C. is still seen as the best road to take for a youngster in the community. It keeps the community together; it keeps the youth off from the streets and “it allows us to be a part of something bigger than ourselves or our families. It gives us the opportunity to be part of a rugby family.[87]” The goals of Vineyards R.F.C. are still the same today as it was 60 years ago.

 

 

[1] Mr. Patel, Interviewed in 1994.

[2] Esa Abrahams, Vineyards R.F.C. 50th anniversary year book, 1994.

[3] W.A. Joubert, Die Paarl, p. 7.

[4] W.A. Joubert, Die Paarl, p. 155.

[5] A.G. Oberholster & P. Van Breda, Paarlvallei 1687-1987, pp. 119-120

[6] www.museums.org.za/paarlmuseum/history.htm, accessed24 September 2004.

[7] www.paarlonline.com, accessed22 September 2004.

[8] Readers Digest, Illustrated Guide to Southern Africa, p. 73.

[9] W.A. Joubert, Die Paarl, p. 5.

[10] W.A. Joubert, Die Paarl, p. 5.

[11] www.paarlonline.com, accessed22 September 2004.

[12] www.paarlonline.com, accessed22 September 2004.

[13] Readers Digest, Illustrated Guide to Southern Africa, p. 23.

[14] A.G. Oberholster & P. Van Breda, Paarlvallei 1687-1987, pp. 121-122.

[15] A.G. Khan in W.A. Joubert, Die Paarl, p. 155.

[16] Jaynie Moerat, Interviewed on17 October 2004.

[17] A.G. Khan in W.A. Joubert, Die Paarl, p. 158.

[18] A.G. Khan in W.A. Joubert, Die Paarl 1657-1952, p. 158.

[19] A.G. Oberholster & P. Van Breda, Paarlvallei 1687-1987, p. 235.

[20] Sacred month of fasting. Fasting means to abstain from eating and drinking from the break of dawn to sunset.

[21] Yusuf Moerat, Interviewed on4 August 2004.

[22] Ikraam Moerat, Interviewed on17 October 2004.

[23] S. Jeppie, Quoted in V.R.F.C. 50th anniversary year book, 1994.

[24] A. Odendaal, ‘The thing that is not round’ in A. Grundlingh, A. Odendaal, B. Spies, Beyond the tryline, (Johannesburg, 1995), pp. 30.

[25] A. Odendaal, ‘The thing that is not round’ in A. Grundlingh, A. Odendaal, B. Spies, Beyond the tryline, (Johannesburg, 1995), pp. 26-27.

[26] A.G. Khan in W.A. Joubert, Die Paarl 1657-1952, p. 160.

[27] A. Odendaal, ‘The thing that is not round’ in A. Grundlingh, A. Odendaal, B. Spies, Beyond the tryline, (Johannesburg, 1995), pp. 26-27.

[28] W.A. Joubert, Die Paarl 1657-1952, p. 146.

[29] Archer & Boullion in A. Odendaal, ‘The thing that is not round’ in A. Grundlingh, A. Odendaal, B. Spies, Beyond the tryline, (Johannesburg, 1995), pp. 26-27.

[30] Dobson in A. Odendaal, ‘The thing that is not round’ in A. Grundlingh, A. Odendaal, B. Spies, Beyond the tryline, (Johannesburg, 1995), pp. 30-31.

[31] W.A. Joubert, Die Paarl 1657-1952, p. 156.

[32] W.A. Joubert, Die Paarl 1657-1952, p. 149.

[33] A.G. Oberholster & P. Van Breda, Paarlvallei 1687-1987, p. 236.

[34] A.G. Oberholster & P. Van Breda, Paarlvallei 1687-1987, p. 236.

[35] Dobson in A. Odendaal, ‘The thing that is not round’ in A. Grundlingh, A. Odendaal, B. Spies, Beyond the tryline, (Johannesburg, 1995), pp. 30-31.

[36] W.A. Joubert, Die Paarl 1657-1952, p. 150.

[37] Mr. Patel, Interviewed in 1994.

[38] M. Galant, ‘A history of Western Province cricket’, (People’s History Project, Dept. of History, University of the Western Cape, 1987) p. 2.

[39] Yusuf Moerat, Interviewed on4 August 2004.

[40] Galant, ‘A history’. in A. Odendaal, ‘The thing that is not round’ in A. Grundlingh, A. Odendaal, B. Spies, Beyond the tryline, (Johannesburg, 1995), p. 28.

[41] Name of the grounds where rugby matches were played.

[42] W.A. Joubert, Die Paarl 1657-1952, p. 149.

[43] Slang term used when referring to an older male.

[44] Moosa Patel, 2004. (Translation: Who will ever forget Boeta Gamat Richards’ open-air cinema in Malherbe Street on Monday nights? Who will ever forget that kick that Boeta Boebie put through the poles which the referee denied, while Boeta Gamat caught it on his 16mm camera and showed it in his cinema? For those who remember  the days, it is now pure nostalgia. It is, however, an experience that will never again be relived).

[45] Mr. Mohammed Patel, Interviewed in 1994 by Moosa Patel for Vineyards R.F.C.50th ann. Year book.

[46] Slang term used to refer toPort   Elizabeth.

[47] Moosa Patel, 2004. (Translated: The days of the Ou Tuin).

[48] F. Punt, L. Punt, E. Smuts & T. van Louw, Dynamic History, p. 45.

[49] Jaynie Moerat, Interviewed on17 October 2004.

[50] ‘Oude Pastorie Museum” visited on 12 August 2004.

[51] Ikraam Moerat, Interviewed on17 October 2004.

[52] A. Odendaal, ‘The thing that is not round’ in A. Grundlingh, A. Odendaal, B. Spies, Beyond the tryline, (Johannesburg, 1995), p. 36.

[53] W.A. Joubert, Die Paarl 1657-1952, p. 150.

[54] Dobson in A. Odendaal, ‘The thing that is not round’ in A. Grundlingh, A. Odendaal, B. Spies, Beyond the tryline, (Johannesburg, 1995), p. 40.

[55] Yusuf Moerat, Interviewed on4 August 2004.

[56] Na-aim Moerat, Interviewed on13 July 2004.

[57] Na-aim Moerat, Interviewed on13 July 2004.

[58] Vineyards R.F.C. 1st XV, Saturday 04 September 2004, Vineyards vs Rocklands.

[59] A. Odendaal, ‘The thing that is not round’ in A. Grundlingh, A. Odendaal, B. Spies, Beyond the tryline, (Johannesburg, 1995), p55.

[60] Na-aim Moerat, Interviewed on13 July 2004.

[61] Dobson in A. Odendaal, ‘The thing that is not round’ in A. Grundlingh, A. Odendaal, B. Spies, Beyond the tryline, (Johannesburg, 1995), p55.

[62] South African Rugby Football Federation Referee’s Report, 1971 (Appendix A).

[63] A. Odendaal, ‘The thing that is not round’ in A. Grundlingh, A. Odendaal, B. Spies, Beyond the tryline, (Johannesburg, 1995), p. 57.

[64] Ikraam Moerat, Interviewed on5 September 2004.

[65] Formerly known as the County Coloured Rugby Union, changed its name to Paarl Rugby Union in 1960.

[66] S. Jeppie, Quoted in V.R.F.C. 50th anniversary yearbook, 1994.

[67] Ikraam Moerat, Interviewed on5 September 2004.

[68] Ikraam Moerat, Interviewed on5 September 2004.

[69] Yusuf Moerat Interviewed on 4 August 2004. (Translated: Highlights will always be the Silver Trophy team that dominated Federation rugby during 1969 – 1972).

[70] A. Grundling, ‘Responses to isolation’ in A. Grundlingh, A. Odendaal, B. Spies, Beyond the tryline, (Johannesburg, 1995), p. 92.

[71] A. Grundling, ‘Responses to isolation’ in A. Grundlingh, A. Odendaal, B. Spies, Beyond the tryline, (Johannesburg, 1995), pp. 91-92.

[72] Ikraam Moerat, Interviewed on17 October 2004.

[73] A. Grundling, ‘Responses to isolation’ in A. Grundlingh, A. Odendaal, B. Spies, Beyond the tryline, (Johannesburg, 1995), pp. 91-92.

[74] Ikraam Moerat, Interviewed on5 September 2004.

[75]CapeTimes article, 1970.

[76] A. Grundling, ‘Responses to isolation’ in A. Grundlingh, A. Odendaal, B. Spies, Beyond the tryline, (Johannesburg, 1995), pp. 92-93.

[77]CapeTimes article, 1970.

[78] Die Burger, 1970.

[79] Dobson in A. Grundling, ‘Responses to isolation’ in A. Grundlingh, A. Odendaal, B. Spies, Beyond the tryline, (Johannesburg, 1995), p 93.

[80] Marwaan Moerat, Interviewed on6 September 2004.

[81] Ikraam Moerat, Interviewed on 5 September 2004. (Translated: We felt that we were being used in order to keep white rugby in international sport).

[82] Ikraam Moerat, Interviewed on17 October 2004.

[83] Paarl Post article, 2003.

[84] Arthrob Petersen, Interviewed on24 September 2004.

[85] Oubaas Du Plessis, Quoted in V.R.F.C. 50th anniversary yearbook, 1994.

[86] Oubaas Du Plessis, Quoted in V.R.F.C. 50th anniversary yearbook, 1994.

[87] Allie Moerat jnr, Interviewed on04 August 2004.